HANDLOOM AND ITS FUNCTIONS –
A loom is device used to weave cloth the basic purpose of any loom is to held the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads the precise shape of the loom and its mechanic is may very but the basic functions is the same.
The word loom is derived from the old English “gedon” formed from loom a root of unknown origin this meant utensil or tool of any kind in 1404 it tool of any kind in 1404 it was used to mean machine to enable weaving.
Weaving is done by interesting the longitudinal threads the warp i.e. That which is thrown across with teraservers threads, the weft i.e. that which is woven.
The major components of the loom are the warp beam, handles, harness or shafts shuttles, reed, and take up roll in the loom, yarn, processing, battering and taking-up operations. These are the principal motions.
Shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form a shed through which the filling yarn , carried by the shuttle can be inserted. On the modern loom, simple and intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the shuttle, can be inserted . On the modern loom, simple and intricate shedding operation are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame, also known as a harness. This is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called headless or healds,are attached , the yarns are passed through the yarns are passed through the yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles, which hang of the heddles , which hang vertically from the harness.
The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, and the number of harness used depends on the complexity at the weave two common methods of controlling the heddles are dobbies and a jacquard head.
As the harness raise the heddles or heads, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created the filling yarn in inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle, the shuttle normally painted at each and to allow passage through the shed in a traditional shuttle normally painted at each end to allow passage through the shed in a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a quill which is turn in mounted in the shuttle the filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle as it moves across the loom a single from one side of the loom to the to the other is known as a pick as the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed .it weaves, an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from ravelling.
Between the heddles and take up roll, the warp threads pass through another frame called the reed the portion of the fabric that has already been formed but not yet rolled up on the take up. After the shuttle moves across the loom logging down the fill yarn, the weaver’s uses thread to press each filling yarn against the fell. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150 to 160 picks per minute.