FABRIC FAULTS – Weaving is the intersection of  warp and weft, which cross and interlace at right angles to each other. The lengthwise yarns are known as warp yarns and width wise yarns are known as weft or filling yarns and the fabric produced is known as woven fabric. So, making a weaved fabric involves lots of complexities and also many faults.

Fabric faults are the defects or faults that occur during either these two functions. These defects vary from minor to major. As the name suggests, Minor defects can be ignored sometimes and are not so visible, a  defect that would not cause the product to be termed a second either because of severity or location but on the other side, major defects are clearly visible and can be easily bearable, a defect that, if conspicuous on the finished product, would cause the item to be a second. Often inspectors are given the responsibility of inspecting finished garments without adequate training in fabric defects and their causes. The ultimate solution, of course, is to provide actual examples or photographs of both major and minor defects.

If a fabric has many faults then companies tend to reject the material resulting in a loss for the production companies. To avoid this rejection, the production of good quality fabrics becomes a necessity.


The machine used for weaving fabric is a loom. It is a complex work. A number of faults occur in fabric during weaving process. Woven Fabric Faults include cut yarn, double yarn, hole, float, stain, etc. They are caused due to several reasons which are discussed in this article. Apart from woven fabric faults, knitted fabric faults are also discussed. They include Barrie Effect, Needle lines, bowing, cotton Contamination, etc.

  1. Warp way defect.
  2. Weft way defect.
  3. Fabric faults common to both warp and weft.

Warp way defect:

  1. Warp stitching.
  2. Long float.
  3. Wrong warp.
  4. Missing warp.
  5. Double warp
  6. Reed mark.
  7. Knot in the warp.
  8. Tight warp.
  9. Warp steak.
  10. Selvedge effect;
  11. Curly/wavy effect.
  12. Corded selvedge.
  13. Weft breaks or cuts at the selvedge.
  14. Loops in the selvedge.
  15. Temple marks.

Weft way defect:

  1. Miss pick or broken pick.
  2. Thick and thin place.
  3. Broken pattern.
  4. Shuttle mark.
  5. Weft carls.
  6. Tight picks.
  7. Starting mark.
  8. Cracks.
  9. Tear drops.
  10. Black picks.
  11. Finger mark.
  12. Knot in the weft

Fabric Faults Common to both Warp and Weft:

  1. Cloudy or uneven cloth.
  2. Oil or grease sport.
  3. Holes in the cloth.
  4. Wavy cloth.
  5. Dirty cloth.
  6. Rusty fabric.
  7. Hairy or fussy fabric.
  8. Rough surface cloth.


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