Textile fibres are materials of natural or artificial origin which can be converted into yarn and fabric for clothing.
Fibre is defined as a fine strand of tissue of plants or animal or any synthetic material drawn out into very slender flament and subsequently cut into required length.
Classification of Textile Fibre :
General properties of Fibre required for ideal Textile:
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES :
i)Staple Length :
Staple length is one of the most important qualities of natural fibres.Longer fibres provide stronger yarn and gives higher production in ring spinning. If the fibre length is more varying in given sample,the quantum of short fibres increases and lower the yarn strength and increases the yarn irregularity.The unit of length ismm,cm,inch.
ii)Tensile Strength :
Weak fibres cannot produce a stronger yarn.Individual fibres must have suffiecient strength to withstand normal mechanical strain in the processing.The resistance of a fibre to use and wear considerably depends on its tensile strength.It is expressed in terms of tenacity and units is grams/tex.
In a fibre ,the ratio or relationship of length to width or cross sectional area is expressed as its finess.I coarse fibres the length is about 700 times more than width.The ratio may be even 5000 in case of fine fibres.Only fine fibres can produce finer yarn.It is expressed in terms of micrograms/inch or micronaire value.
This means the eveness of individual fibres in length and diameter.A fibre possessing this property can produce reasonably even threads.This is also important in connection with the strength of resulting yarn. The more uniform fibres will produce stronger yarn.
It means the ability of the fibres to be spun into yarn.In addition to the above fibre properties the capacity to takeup twist also place an important role in the spinnability of a textile fibre.