FIBRE-DESIRABLE PROPERTIES :
Elasticity is property by which the fibre tends to recover its original length upon the removal of stress,causing deformation.
ii)Moisture Absorption :
Moisture absorption means the absorption of water vapour from the atmosphere by a textile fibre when it is kept in open place. The moisture absorption capacity is expressed in terms of moisture content, which means the amount of moisture content in the textile fibre and its original weight of fibres or its oven dry weight.
Density is the mass or weight of the material per unit volume.Generally expressed in grams/cubic cm.High density fibres will produce heavy weight fabrics and vice-versa.
Most natural fibres have same color.Silk is slightly yellowish, Cotton is creamy white or brown tint. Most of the synthetic fibres are creamy in color. Therefore they must be bleached or boiled and stripped off their color by some chemical process in order to produce a white fibre and yarn as possible.
Luster means shining of a textile fibre.It is consider as an ornament rather than a necessary quality of a fibre.Silk fibre,Rayon has more luster.
vi)Static Electrical resistant :
Static Electricity creates problem in the spinning and other processing of textile fibres especially in the with very low relative humidity.This problem is more severe in the case of synthetic fibres because of low moisture absorption.Static electrical properties creates the problem in sewing also.
IDENTIFICATION OF TEXTILE FIBRES :
There are different types of Natural and Man – Made textile fibres. When it comes for fiber identification, it is very difficult to identify a fiber with bare eyes. A microscopic view of the fiber helps to classify and identify it easily. There is some other tests like burning test and chemical test for fiber identification.
Each of the fibre is identified by i) Microscope view and ii) Solvent Test.
IDENTIFICATION OF TEXTILE FIBRES – BY MICROSCOPIC VIEW :
Longitudinal View : A collapsed,spirally twisted tube with a rough surface.
Cross sectional view : Flat,Elongated or bean shaped with lumen parallel to the larger direction.
MERCERISED COTTON :
Longitudinal View : A more smoother tube with more smooth surface than cotton.
Cross sectional view : Circular with no or less lumen.
MULBERRY SILK (Raw silk) :
Longitudinal View : Irregular elliptical ribbons,sometime separate,some time twisted,no striations.
Cross sectional view : Triangular with rounded corners in pairs,cemented by silk gum.
In the following images cross-section and Longitudinal views have been shown: