Industrial spinning process: Fiber (also spelled fibre) –
Industrial spinning process: Human being, are using fibers by spun into filaments, string, or rope, used as a raw materials, or tangled into sheets to construct the products such as paper or felt. Fibers are frequently used in the manufacture of apparel products. Carbon fiber and Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene are the strongest engineering materials normally made from fibers.
Fibers are the basic necessity of any textile, apparel or related industry. The manufacturers require fibers according to the product they manufacture.
Fibers are of two types: Short fibers are said as Filament fibers and the longest fibers are said to be Staple fibers;
Staple Fibers: raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax
Filament Fibers: silk, polyester, rayon
Fiber Spinning –
Spinning is the twisting jointly of a quantity of fibers to form yarn (or thread, rope, or cable). Earlier, fiber was spun by hand by means of simple tools like spindle and distaff. Nowadays people are using spinning wheel machinery system. Hand-spinning remains a popular handicraft.
Fibers cannot be used to make clothes in their raw form itself. So fibers must be converted into yarns by the method of spinning process. If Spinning can be made by hand, it will take too much time to give output. Thus, many equipments and methods were introduced for making the process quicker and effortless.
Finally, the procedures were sophisticated and industrial spinning in progress manufacturing yarn in a range of different ways. Ring method is the oldest and the mainly used system. Open- end spinning is an additional significant system. The essential industrialized process of spinning comprises carding, combing, drafting, twisting and winding. As the fibers pass through these processes, they are successively formed into lap, sliver, roving and finally yarn. A short explanation of the expedition from fibers to yarns will assist in understanding industrial spinning of fiber in a better way.
The raw fiber lands at a spinning mill as packed mass which goes through the development processes of blending, opening and cleaning. 1.) Blending is made to attain regularity of fiber excellence. 2.) Opening is done to loosen the hard bump of fibers and unravel them.
is necessary to take away the waste such as dirt, leaves, burrs and any remaining seeds.
Carding is the original straightening procedure which places the fiber into a similar lengthwise arrangement. Carding creates the twisted collection of fiber prepared to manufacture yarn. Now the fiber is called ‘Lap’. The lap is extravagance for removing the left over trashes, disentangling and molding it into a round rope like throng called ‘Sliver’. The sliver is then straightened again which is called Combing.
In Combing, fine-toothed combs carry on straightening the fibers until they are set in such a parallel way that the short fibers are totally separated from the longer fibers. This combing procedure is not necessary for manmade staple fibers because they are cut into programmed consistent lengths. This process forms a ‘comb sliver’ made of the longest fibers. The combing process is recognized with improved quality because extended staple yarn makes stronger, smoother and more functional fabrics.