COTTON Fiber – properties and chemical composition

Cotton is a spongy, feathery staple fiber that developed in a ball, or shielding pill. The fiber is nearly clean cellulose. Assisting in seed spreading is the main botanical purpose of cotton fiber.

Pure cotton fabric, staple fibre

Cotton plant is a flowering shrub subject to steamy and sub-steamy areas including the places – India, America and Africa. The maximum variety of natural cotton group is originated in Mexico; tag along Australia and Africa. Cotton fibre was separately cultivated in the ancient and modern Worlds.

The English “Cotton” name derives from the Arabic language, which began to be used approximately around 1400 AD.

Cotton fiber is frequently twist into yarn or thread and used to build a soft, natural, flexible and breathable fabric material then it is used for the main purpose of making garments.

Purpose of using Cotton fibre:

• Lower cost of production and high production capability.
• Cotton also is used to make yarn/thread used in crochet and knitting, weaving.

The chemical composition of Cotton is:

Cellulose – 91.00%
Water – 7.85%
Protoplasm, Pectins – 0.55%
Waxes, Fatty Substances – 0.40%
Mineral Salts – 0.20%

Properties of Cotton:

Very high lustrous property
• Good strength in both wet and in dry condition
• Perfect dimension stability
• Better moisture absorbency – mostly used for making sportswear, athletic wear, yoga wear, etc.,

Present approximation for world production of Cotton fibre is about 25 million tons yearly, calculating for 2.5% of the world’s arable land.

The World’s largest producer of Cotton fibre is China, those fibres are used domestically. The United States has been the major exporter for countless years.

Cotton is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing nowadays.

Apart from apparel industry, Cotton fibres are used in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture, cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The very first Chinese paper was produced of cotton fiber. Flame pipes were once upon a time made of cotton.

Bed spreads or home furnishing materials are made from cotton fibres. Fabrics can also be made from second hand or improved cotton [which was already used] that or else would be thrown away at some stage in the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. At the same time as many fabrics are made completely of cotton fibres, some materials blend cotton with other fibers such as rayon, wool and synthetic fibers like polyester.

Cotton can also be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with Elasthan to make stretchability to the yarn for knitted fabrics, and apparels such as stretch jeans.

2 thoughts on “COTTON Fiber – properties and chemical composition

  1. Dear Sir

    Before using cotton in paper making use of caustic ( NAOH ) in digester is a most.
    But would you pl guide me what to do when caustic and digester both are not available.

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