ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES – Day by day, textile manufacturing industries and companies are focussing on eco friendly textiles, means which textiles are not harmful for our environment which are chemical-free and pollution –free because Textile Industries use different chemicals in different processes like, dyeing, finishing, scouring, bleaching, softening, washing etc. The textile chemicals & dyeing industry consume large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the various processes. Interest in eco-friendly processing in textile industry has increased in the current scenario because of increased awareness of environmental issues. But there are some textiles which are naturally eco-friendly such as natural fibres.
The term “eco textiles” refers to a select group of textiles that have a reduced carbon, energy and pollution impact when compared to the standard methods used to produce textiles and manufacture clothing or simply any textile product, which is produced in ecofriendly manner and processed under eco-friendly limits
. Organic and eco textiles cover a wide range of natural and recycled fibers. Not only this. These organic or natural fibers are grown in an controlled atmosphere where no pesticides and harmful chemicals are also ignored. These textiles are also produced using less water and energy and processed and create less waste during production, processing and at the end of their useful lives. Many have found organic clothing to be helpful in reducing exposure to the vast amount of toxic chemicals we are unknowingly exposed to on a daily basis.
In natural fibre, there is a king og fibers and that is Cotton.It is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides. Organic cotton is grown without chemicals and therefore does no harm to either environment or workers, but it is more labour intensive and furthermore fields must be free of chemicals for three years before the crop can be certified organic. There have been huge global increases in the demand for organic cotton and the problem now facing farmers is producing enough to meet the demand. Similarly, Hemp has many excellent properties, being environmentally positive with no need of pesticides and insecticides, it actually improves the soil where it is grown. In the same way, Bamboo is a material whose luxurious softness has been compared to cashmere. As a plant it is fast growing and highly sustainable and is mainly naturally organic. Bamboo helps to improve soil quality and helps rebuild eroded soil. It requires no pesticides in growing and also 100% sustainable and 100% biodegradable.
Textile industries are facing a challenging condition in the field of quality and productivity, due to the globalization of the world market, but at the same time, the guidelines for the textile processing industries by the pollution control boards create concern over the environment-friendliness of the processes. This in turn makes it essential for innovations and changes in the processes. Biotechnology is one such field that is changing the conventional processing to eco friendly processing of the textiles. Biotechnology can play a crucial role in production of natural fibres with highly improved and modified properties.